Amber acid is used as follows:
- for production of certain plastics, elastomers, polyester and alkyd resins,
- for synthesis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and mercury containing drug products and in analytical chemistry.
- as a fertilizer. Amber acid potentiates fruit ripening, increases yield level, enhances concentration of vitamins and sugar in fruit. It increases cold, drought and disease resistance.
- in food industry, as a food additive E363.
Boric acid (orthoboric acid) is widely used as follows:
- in industry, when producing enamels, special glasses, glass fiber, fiberglass plastic and glass fabric, cements, etc.
- when producing washing and cosmetic preparations, fireproof compositions,
- as a disinfecting and preserving agent, corrosion inhibitor, photography reagent, as a microfertilizer,
- when producing other barium containing compounds,
- in laboratory practice, boric acid is used for preparation of buffer systems,
- in medicine, boric acid is used as an antiseptic (antimicrobial) agent for gargling and washing, for preparation of ointments, pastes, powders, boric alcohol, it is a component of contraceptives, cements, fluxes, washing and cosmetic preparations, fireproof compositions as a disinfecting and preserving agent, corrosion inhibitor, photography reagent, as a microfertilizer, when producing other barium containing compounds.
Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) is intended for destruction of silicate earth materials (tantalum, zirconia, niobium, etc.), as a hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalyst, alkylation catalyst in organic chemistry, reagent in production of refrigerant agents and fluoroplastics, stock substance for fluorine production, production of fluosulphonic acid. Hydrofluoric acid is used as follows:
- in chemical industry,
- in metallurgy,
- in electronic industry,
- in oil and gas industry,
- in construction materials industry,
- for chemical polishing crystal products and glass treatment, etc.
Formic acid is used as follows:
- as a preserving and antibacterial agent when procuring feed, as formic acid inhibits rotting and decomposition, therefore, hay and silo treated with formic acid remain unchanged for a longer time.
- in wool mordant dyeing,
- for parasite control in beekeeping,
- as a solvent in certain chemical reactions, as a bleacher when skin curing, etc.
- in laboratories, liquid formic acid decomposition is used to obtain carbon monoxide, etc.
Hydrofluoboric acid (tetrafluoroboric acid) is used as follows:
- for production of fluoborates,
- as a catalyst of various processes in organic technology,
- HBF4 solutions are used for production of salts for electrolytic cleaning of surfaces and metal polishing,
- in analytical chemistry, as electrolytes for galvanization and metal electrolytic refining: lead, zinc, cadmium, tin, radium, nickel, copper, etc.
Lactic acid is used as follows:
- in food industry, in production of soft drinks, high-boiled masses, fermented milk products, etc.
- in mordant dyeing, in leather production,
- in fermentation plants as an antibacterial agent to produce drug products, plasticizers.
Recently, using lactic acid for polylactide synthesis – biodegradated (being decomposed in nature in real time) polymers capable of substituting synthetic polymers (polyethylene, polyprolylene, PET, etc.) is gaining greater applicability.
Oxalic acid (ethanedioic acid) is widely used as follows:
- in textile and leather industries as a mordant;
- a component of household and industrial cleaning agents, agents for cleaning metal surfaces from oxide films;
- as an insecticide;
- as a reductant in photography;
- as a reagent for waste water treatment;
- as a precipitating agent when separating rare earth metals, etc.
- as a reagent for detection and separation of Fe, A1, Be, Hg, Ti, Zr, Tl, U ions, etc. and for determination of Fe in alloys, aluminum and other items.
- in analytical chemistry, as a masking reagent for certain metals and for spectrophotometric determination of Fe, U, Be;
- in medicine, due to capability of precipitating proteins in their solutions. Sulphosalicylic acid is used for protein nephelometric analysis.
- sulphosalicylic acid and its salts has an antiseptic effect, etc.